School of Public Health

Epidemiologic Research Methods and Causal Inference

Epi Research Methods Casual InferAssessing the effect of an exposure on outcome requires rigorous methods to rule out random error, confounding, misclassification, and/or selection biases as possible alternative explanations.

Choi HK, Nguyen US, Niu J, Danaei G, Zhang Y. Selection bias in rheumatic disease research. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014 Jul;10(7):403-12. PMCID: PMC4260806.

Nguyen UD, Zhang Y, Louie-Gao Q, Niu J, Felson DT,  LaValley MP, Choi HK. The obesity paradox in recurrent attacks of gout in observational studies: Clarifications and remedy. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017 Apr;69(4):561-566. doi: 10.1002/acr.22954. PubMed PMID: 27331767; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5179319.

Wang Y, Nguyen UDT, Lane NE, Lu N, Wei J, Lei G, Zeng C, Zhang Y. Knee osteoarthritis, potential mediators, and risk of all-cause mortality: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care & Research (Hoboken). 2020 Jan. doi: 10.1002/acr.24151 Epub 2021 Mar 13. PMID: 31961495; PMCID: PMC8606227.