SPH Exhibit Wall 2022

Origins of Health Disparities among Black Americans

HSC School of Public Health Photo Wall Exhibit – EAD Lobby, 7th Floor

References Supporting Exhibit Content

February 2022

Exhibit 2022c


Distrust of Medicine among Black Americans:

Gamble V.N. (1997). Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1773–1778.

Structural Racism:

Williams, D.R., & Sternthal, M. (2010). Understanding racial-ethnic disparities in health: Sociological contributions. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51 Suppl, S15–S27.

Black American Health Outcomes:

Ely, D.M., & Driscoll, A.K. (2021). Infant mortality in the United States, 2019: Data from the period linked birth/infant death file. National Vital Statistics Reports, 70, number 14. National Center for Health Statistics. Available at https://dx.doi.org/10.15620/cdc:111053. Accessed on January 15, 2022.

Greenwood, B.N., Hardeman, R.R., Huang, L., & Sojourn, A. (2020). Physician–patient racial concordance and disparities in birthing mortality for newborns. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117, 21194–21200.

Howard, G., Moy, C.S., Howard, V.J., McClure, L.A., Kleindorfer, D.O., Kissela, B.M., Judd, S. E., Unverzagt, F.W., Soliman, E.Z., Safford, M.M., Cushman, M., Flaherty, M.L., Wadley, V.G., & REGARDS Investigators* (2016). Where to focus efforts to reduce the black-white disparity in stroke mortality: Incidence versus case fatality? Stroke, 47, 1893–1898.

Lackland D.T. (2014). Racial differences in hypertension: Implications for high blood pressure management. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 348, 135–138.

Lee, D.C., Young, T.L., Koziatek, C.A., Shim, C.J., Osorio, M., Vinson, A.J., Ravenell, J.E., & Wall, S.P. (2019, August). Age disparities among patients with Type 2 diabetes and associated rates of hospital use and diabetic complications. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 16, E101.

National Cancer Institute (2022). Cancer stat facts: Cancer disparities. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Available at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/disparities.html. Accessed on January 15, 2022.

CDC Statement on Racism and Health:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). Racism and Health. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/racismdisparities/index.html. Accessed on February 7, 2022.

Enduring Racial Hierarchies:

American Medical Association (2020, November 16). New AMA Policies Recognize Race as a Social, not Biological, Construct. Available at https://www.ama-assn.org/press-center/press-releases/new-ama-policies-recognize-race-social-not-biological-construct. Accessed January 16, 2022.

Bailey, Z.D., Feldman, J.M., & Bassett, M.T. (2021). How structural racism works — Racist policies as a root cause of U.S. racial health inequities. New England Journal of Medicine, 384, 768-773.

Smithsonian Magazine (2020, June 4). 158 Resources to Understand Racism in America. Available at https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/158-resources-understanding-systemic-racism-america-180975029/#sectionTwo. Accessed January 16, 2022.

Tilley, H. (2014). Racial science, geopolitics, and empires: Paradoxes of power. Isis, 105 (4), 773-781. Available at https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/679424. Accessed January 16, 2022.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Black Americans:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). Disparities in COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations: Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/racial-ethnic-disparities/disparities-hospitalization.html. Accessed on February 7, 2022.

Holmes, L., Enwere, M., Williams, J., et al. (2020). Black-white risk differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) transmission, mortality and case fatality in the United States: Translational epidemiologic perspective and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 4322.

One Enduring Legacy of Enslavement:

Esenwa, C., Tshiswaka, D.I., Gebrebziabher, M., Ovbiagele, B. (2018). Historical slavery and modern-day stroke mortality in the United States stroke belt. Stroke, 49, 465-469.

Social Determinants of Health:

Yearby, R. (2020). Structural racism and health disparities: Reconfiguring the social determinants of health framework to include the root cause. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 48, 518-526.

Health Disparities and Place:

Belsky, D.W., Caspi, A., Arseneault, L. et al. (2019). Genetics and the geography of health, behaviour and attainment. Nature Human Behavior, 3, 576–586.

The Consequences of Discrimination Exposure:

Beatty Moody, D.L., Taylor, A.D., Leibel, D.K., Al-Najjar, E., Katzel, L.I., Davatzikos, C., Gullapalli, R.P., Seliger, S.L., Kouo, T., Erus, G., Rosenberger, W.F., Evans, M.K., Zonderman, A.B., & Waldstein, S.R. (2019). Lifetime discrimination burden, racial discrimination, and subclinical cerebrovascular disease among African Americans. Health Psychology, 38, 63–74.

Beatty Moody, D.L., Waldstein, S.R., LeibelI, D.K., Hoggard, L.S., Gee, G.C., Ashe, J.J., Brondolo, E., Al-Najjar, E., Evans, M.K., & Zonderman, A.B. (2021, May 19). Race and other sociodemographic categories are differentially linked to multiple dimensions of interpersonal-level discrimination: Implications for intersectional, health research. Plos One, Available at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251174. Accessed January 16, 2022.

Brody, G.H., Yu, T., Miller, G.E., & Chen, E. (2015). Discrimination, racial identity, and cytokine levels among African-American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, 496–501.

Chae, D.H., Epel, E.S., Nuru-Jeter, A.M., Lincoln, K.D., Taylor, R.J., et al. (2016). Discrimination, mental health, and leukocyte telomere length among African American men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 63, 10–16.

Chitrala, K.N., Hernandez, D.G., Nalls, M.A., Mode, N.A., Zonderman, A.B., Ezike, N., & Evans, M.K. (2020). Race-specific alterations in DNA methylation among middle-aged African Americans and Whites with metabolic syndrome. Epigenetics, 15, 462–482.

Deuster, P.A., Kim-Dorner, S.J., Remaley, A.T., & Poth, M. (2011). Allostatic load and health status of African Americans and Whites. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(6), 641–653.

Duru, O.K., Harawa, N.T., Kermah, D., & Norris, K. C. (2012). Allostatic load burden and racial disparities in mortality. Journal of the National Medical Association, 104(1-2), 89–95.

Lu, D., Palmer, J.R., Rosenberg, L., Shields, A.E., Orr, E.H., Devivo, I., & Cozier, Y.C. (2019). Perceived racism in relation to telomere length among African American women in the Black Women’s Health Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 36, 33–39.

Mays, V.M., Cochran, S.D., & Barnes, N.W. (2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225.

Mouzon, D.M., Taylor, R.J., Nguyen, A.W., & Chatters, L. M. (2016). Serious psychological distress among African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life. Journal of Community Psychology, 44, 765–780.

National Public Radio, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, & Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (2017). Discrimination in America: Experiences and Views of African Americans. Available at https://media.npr.org/assets/img/2017/10/23/discriminationpoll-african-americans.pdf. Accessed February 7, 2022.

Pascoe, E.A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 531–554.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2020). Results from the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Detailed Tables. Table 8.17B. Available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/report/2019-nsduh-detailed-tables. Accessed on January 29, 2022.

Tajuddin, S.M., Hernandez, D.G., Chen, B.H., Noren Hooten, N., Mode, N.A., Nalls, M.A., Singleton, A.B., Ejiogu, N., Chitrala, K.N., Zonderman, A.B., & Evans, M.K. (2019). Novel age-associated DNA methylation changes and epigenetic age acceleration in middle-aged African Americans and whites. Clinical Epigenetics, 11, 119. Available at https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148 -019-0722-1. Accessed on January 16, 2022.

Tan, M., Mamun, A., Kitzman, H., Mandapati, S.R., & Dodgen, L. (2017). Neighborhood disadvantage and allostatic load in African American women at risk for obesity-related diseases. Preventing Chronic Disease, 14, 1–14.

Thames, A.D., Irwin, M.R., Breen, E.C., & Cole, S.W. (2019) Experienced discrimination and racial differences in leukocyte gene expression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 106, 277-283.

Williamson L.D. (2021). Beyond personal experiences: Examining mediated vicarious experiences as an antecedent of medical mistrust. Health Communication, 1–14. Advance online publication. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2020.1868744. Accessed on January 16, 2022.

Williamson, L.D., Smith, M.A., & Bigman, C.A. (2019). Does discrimination breed mistrust? Examining the role of mediated and non-mediated discrimination experiences in medical mistrust. Journal of Health Communication, 24, 791–799.

The Need for Policy Change is Urgent:

Kendi, I.X. (2019). How to be an Anti-Racist. New York: One World.